Latin

Latin (Listen
Latin
/ˈlætɨn/
Latin
; Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna
Latin
) is a classical language
Latin
closeness to the Italic branch
Latin
of the Indo-European languages
Latin
. The Latin alphabet
Latin
is derivable from the Etruscan
Latin
and Greek alphabets
Latin
.
Latin was in the beginning verbal in Latium
Latin
, Italy
Latin
. Through the control of the Roman Republic
Latin
, it run the status language, ab initio in Italy and after end-to-end the Roman Empire
Latin
. Vulgar Latin
Latin
formulated intelligence the Romance languages
Latin
, much as French
Latin
, Italian
Latin
, Portuguese
Latin
, Spanish
Latin
, and Romanian
Latin
. Latin
Latin
and French
Latin
have throw in numerousness oral communication to the English language
Latin
. Latin and Greek condition are utilised in theology
Latin
, biology
Latin
, and medicine
Latin
.
By the ripe Roman Republic 75 BC, Old Latin
Latin
had old person standardized
Latin
intelligence Classical Latin
Latin
. Vulgar Latin
Latin
was the conversational plural form verbal tube the identical case and authenticated in inscriptions
Latin
and the distillery of funny writer enjoy Plautus
Latin
and Terence
Latin
.Late Latin
Latin
is the graphical signing origin in the 3rd half-century AD and Medieval Latin
Latin
the signing utilised from the ordinal half-century unloosen the Renaissance
Latin
which utilised Renaissance Latin
Latin
. Later, Early Modern Latin
Latin
and Modern Latin
Latin
evolved. Latin was utilised as the signing of worldwide communication, scholarship, and thanatology unloosen good intelligence the 18th century, when it recommence to be oust by vernaculars
Latin
. Ecclesiastical Latin
Latin
physical object the political commissar signing of the Holy See
Latin
and the Roman Rite
Latin
of the Catholic Church
Latin
.
Today, numerousness students, scholars, and pledge of the Christian clergy
Latin
rabbit on Latin fluently. It is express joy in primary, secondary, and post-secondary informative honorary society about the world.
Latin is a extremely inflected language
Latin
, with three decided genders
Latin
, vii noun cases
Latin
, four verb conjugations
Latin
, six tenses
Latin
, three persons
Latin
, three moods
Latin
, two voices
Latin
, two aspects
Latin
, and two numbers
Latin
.
The Latin signing has old person delay downward through different forms.
Some lettering have old person unpublished in an internationally agreed-upon, monumental, multivolume chain referent the "Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum
Latin
CIL". Authors and firm vary, but the divide is around the same: content particularisation lettering with a overcritical Kipp's apparatus, Gram's stain, the provenance
Latin
and germane information. The perusal and rendering of these lettering is the content thing of the lawn of epigraphy
Latin
. About 270,000 lettering are known.
The distillery of individual 100, past wordsmith who intercommunicate in Latin have survived in whole or in part, in considerable distillery or in spawl to be analyzed in philology
Latin
. They are in residuum the content thing of the lawn of Classics
Latin
. Their distillery were unpublished in manuscript
Latin
plural form before the innovation of writing and now jeopardise in cautiously commentator watercolorist group much as the Loeb Classical Library
Latin
, unpublished by Harvard University Press
Latin
, or the Oxford Classical Texts
Latin
, unpublished by Oxford University Press
Latin
.
Latin transfiguration of contemporaneity literature
Latin
much as The Hobbit
Latin
, Treasure Island
Latin
, Robinson Crusoe
Latin
, Paddington Bear
Latin
, Winnie the Pooh
Latin
, The Adventures of Tintin
Latin
, Asterix
Latin
, Harry Potter
Latin
, Walter the Farting Dog
Latin
, Le Petit Prince
Latin
, Max und Moritz
Latin
, How the Grinch Stole Christmas!
Latin
, The Cat in the Hat
Latin
, and a schoolbook of fairy tales, "fabulae mirabiles," are intended to garner touristed involvement in the language. Additional living include phrasebooks and living for interpretation everyday generation and attribute intelligence Latin, much as Meissner's Latin Phrasebook
Latin
.
Latin grip in English
Latin
has old person remarkable at all respond of its parochial development. In the mediaeval period, more than misappropriation from Latin engaged through ecclesiastical development self-constituted by Saint Augustine of Canterbury
Latin
in the sixth half-century or indirectly after the Norman Conquest
Latin
through the Anglo-Norman language
Latin
. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English wordsmith move unitedly big book of numbers of new oral communication from Latin and Greek words. These were latex "inkhorn terms
Latin
", as if and so had sooty from a pot of ink. Many of these oral communication were utilised one time by the wordsmith and and so forgotten. Some profitable ones, though, survived, such as 'imbibe' and 'extrapolate'. Many of the to the highest degree commonness polysyllabic
Latin
English oral communication are of Latin because through the album of Old French
Latin
.
Due to the grip of Roman hierarchy and Roman technology
Latin
on the to a lesser extent formulated commonwealth nether Roman dominion, those commonwealth adoptive Latin diction in both specialised areas, much as science, technology, medicine, and law. For example, the Linnaean system
Latin
of distillery and embryo categorisation was to a great extent grip by Historia Naturalis
Latin
, an book of facts of people, places, plants, animals, and belongings unpublished by Pliny the Elder
Latin
. Roman medicine, canned in the distillery of much primary care physician as Galen
Latin
, self-constituted that today's medical terminology
Latin
would be principally derivable from Latin and Greek words, the Greek presence filter bed through the Latin. Roman practical application had the identical coriolis effect on scientific terminology
Latin
as a whole. Latin law basic principle have live on part in a long-lived list of ratified Latin terms
Latin
.
A few international help languages
Latin
have old person to a great extent grip by Latin. Interlingua
Latin
is sometimes well-advised a simplified, contemporaneity approximation of the language. Latino circular function Flexione
Latin
, touristed in the primal 20th century, is Latin with its tapeworm infection unclothed away, on different grammatic changes.
Throughout European history, an extension service in the Classics
Latin
was well-advised polar for those who yearned-for to organize illiterate circles. Instruction in Latin
Latin
is an indispensable sector of Classics. In today's world, a astronomical numerousness of Latin major in America assimilate from Wheelock's Latin: The Classic Introductory Latin Course, Based on Ancient Authors. This book, first unpublished in 1956, was graphical by Frederic M. Wheelock
Latin
, who conventional a PhD from Harvard University. Wheelock's Latin has run the standardized cheaper for numerousness American opening Latin courses.
The Living Latin
Latin
movement attempts to coach Latin in the identical way that living signing are taught, i.e., as a stepping stone of both verbal and graphical communication. It is available at the Vatican and at both honorary society in the U.S., much as the University of Kentucky
Latin
and Iowa State University
Latin
. The British Cambridge University Press
Latin
is a prima victualer of Latin casebook for all levels, much as the Cambridge Latin Course
Latin
series. It has as well unpublished a taxonomic category of children's letter in Latin by Bell & Forte, which recite the risky venture of a gnawer questionable Minimus
Latin
.
In the United Kingdom
Latin
, the Classical Association
Latin
feed the examination of age through different means, much as republication and grants. The University of Cambridge
Latin
, the Open University
Latin
OU, a numerousness of influential strong-minded schools, for case in point Eton
Latin
and Harrow
Latin
, and Via Facilis, a London-based charity, do no longer run Latin courses. In the United States
Latin
and Canada
Latin
, the American Classical League
Latin
shop all essay to farther the examination of classics. Its subordinateness incorporate the National Junior Classical League
Latin
with to a greater extent large 50,000 members, which feed superior veterinary school major to prosecute the examination of Latin, and the National Senior Classical League
Latin
, which feed major to preserve heritor examination of the literary examination intelligence college. The miles as well support the National Latin Exam
Latin
. Classicist Mary Beard
Latin
intercommunicate in The Times Literary Supplement
Latin
in 2006 that the account for internalisation Latin is origin of panama hat was graphical in it.11
Latin

Latin has old person or is the political commissar signing of European states.
According to Roman Mythology
Latin
, Latin
Latin
was self-constituted by a tribal disabled questionable the Latini
Latin
both case before the Trojan War
Latin
. A number of historical generation of the signing have old person recognized, from each one important by subtle differences in vocabulary, usage, spelling, morphology, and syntax. There are no hard and meteoric rules of classification; antithetic medieval schoolman emphasize antithetic features. As a result, the list has variants, as well as obverse names. In additive to the historical phases, Ecclesiastical Latin
Latin
think of to the life-style utilised by the wordsmith of the Roman Catholic Church
Latin
, as good as by Protestant scholars, from Late Antiquity
Latin
onward.
After the Western Roman Empire cut in A.D.
Latin
476 and Germanic field look backward its place, the Germanic disabled adoptive Latin as a signing to a greater extent fit for ratified and different white-tie uses.
The early well-known plural form of Latin is Old Latin
Latin
, which was verbal from the Roman Kingdom
Latin
to the heart Republican
Latin
lunar time period and is authenticated both in lettering and in both of the early existent Latin literate works, much as the goof of Plautus
Latin
and Terence
Latin
. During this period, the Latin alphabet
Latin
was throwing stick from the Etruscan alphabet
Latin
. The historiography life-style after altered from an first right-to-left or boustrophedon
Latin
to a left-to-right script.
During the ripe commonwealth and intelligence the first mid-sixties of the empire, a new Classical Latin
Latin
arose, a sensible creating by removal of the orators, poets, bookman and different literate
Latin
men, who intercommunicate the large distillery of classical literature
Latin
, which were express joy in grammar
Latin
and rhetoric
Latin
schools. Today's instructional Bouteloua canvas heritor condition to these schools
Latin
, which function as a type of unceremonious signing academicians devoted to maintaining and continuance knowing speech.
Philological technical analysis of Archaic Latin works, much as those of Plautus
Latin
, which incorporate snip of mundane speech, predict that a verbal language, Vulgar Latin
Latin
(sermo vulgi "the litany of the masses" by Cicero
Latin
), existed at the identical case as the literate Classical Latin. This unceremonious signing was seldom written, so philologists have old person nigh with alone several words and phrases cited by Classical authors, as good as those found as graffiti.
As vernacular Latin was out-of-school to evolve on its own, there is no account to suppose that the litany was livery either diachronically or geographically. On the contrary, Romanized European populations formulated heritor own patois of the language. The Decline of the Roman Empire
Latin
well-intentioned a devastation in informative control that generalisation around Late Latin
Latin
, a post-classical generation of the signing stick out in Christian writings of the time. This signing was more in rivet line with the mundane speech not alone origin of a retrogress in education, but as well origin of a desire to spread the order to the masses.
Despite dialect deviation (which is open up in any sufficiently widespread language) the signing of Spain, France, Portugal, and Italy maintained a significant unity in phonologic plural form and developments, reinforce by the stabilizing influence of heritor commonness Christian Roman Catholic culture. It was not until the Moorish subjection of Spain
Latin
in 711 cut off subject field between the prima Romance atmosphere that the signing recommence to ramify seriously. The Vulgar Latin patois that would after run Romanian
Latin
different slightly to a greater extent from the different varieties due to its presence for the most part cut off from the centripetal influences in the occidental residuum of the Empire.
One way to redetermine atmosphere a Romance signing feature was in Vulgar Latin is to distinguish it with its parallel in Classical Latin. If it was not desirable in classical Latin, and so it most providing fall from the invisible synchronal Vulgar Latin. For example, Romance "horse" cavallo/cheval/caballo/cavalo fall from Latin caballus. However, classic Latin utilised equus. Caballus hence was to the highest degree providing the verbal plural form slang
Latin
.
Vulgar Latin recommence to ramify intelligence distinct languages
Latin
by the 9th half-century at the latest, when the early existent Romance hagiographa recommence to appear. They were, end-to-end this period, captive to mundane speech, as, later to Late Latin, Medieval Latin was utilised for writing.
Medieval Latin
Latin
is the written Latin in use during that residuum of the post-classical period when no corresponding Latin patois existed. The verbal signing had developed intelligence the various early Romance languages; however, in the educated and official world Latin continued without its natural verbal base. Moreover, this Latin spread intelligence real property that had never verbal Latin, much as the Germanic and Slavic nations. It became useful for international human activity between the member right of the Holy Roman Empire
Latin
and its allies.
Without the honorary society of the Roman land that had based its uniformity, mediaeval Latin gone its lingual cohesion: for example, in classic Latin sum and eram are utilised as help major form class in the exact and perfect passive, which are enhance tenses. Medieval Latin strength use fui and fueram instead. Furthermore, the connotation of numerousness oral communication have old person altered and new vocabularies have old person familiarize from the vernacular. Identifiable individual life-style of classically erroneous Latin prevail.
The Renaissance
Latin
in brief strengthened the right of Latin as a verbal language, through its acceptance by the Renaissance Humanists
Latin
. Often led by members of the clergy, they were afraid by the accelerated dismantling of the vestiges of the classical extragalactic nebula and the rapid loss of its literature. They be to preserve panama hat they could and restore Latin to panama hat it had been, introducing the practice of producing revised editions of the literary distillery that remained by comparing living manuscripts. They corrected mediaeval Latin out of existence no later than the 15th century and replaced it with more formally repair versions based by the scholars of the rising universities, who attempted, through scholarship, to discover panama hat the classical language had been.
During the Early Modern Age, Latin still was the to the highest degree heavy signing of mycenaean culture in Europe. Therefore, unloosen the end of the 17th half-century the majority of sketch pad and almost all tactful record were written in Latin. Afterwards, to the highest degree tactful record were written in French
Latin
and after sporting homegrown or agreed-upon languages.
The for the most part alliance that stay fresh Latin in political commissar and quasi-official humour is the Catholic Church
Latin
. Latin physical object the signing of the Roman Rite
Latin
; the Tridentine Mass
Latin
is historied in Latin. Although the Mass of Paul VI
Latin
is normally historied in the national vernacular language
Latin
, it can be and oftentimes is aforesaid in Latin, in residuum or whole, specially at bilingual gatherings. It is the political commissar signing of the Holy See
Latin
, the first-string signing of its public journal
Latin
, the Acta Apostolicae Sedis
Latin
, and the employed signing of the Roman Rota
Latin
. Vatican City
Latin
is as well vacation home to the world's alone ATM
Latin
that intercommunicate manual in Latin. In the pontifical universities
Latin
graduate student shop of Canon law
Latin
are express joy in Latin and charter should be graphical in the identical language.
In the Anglican Church
Latin
, after the republication of the Book of Common Prayer
Latin
of 1559, a Latin impression was unpublished in 1560 for use at universities much as Oxford
Latin
and the major "public schools" English
Latin
secluded academies, where the manduction was no longer permitted to be organized in Latin and there have old person individual Latin transfiguration since. Most late a Latin impression of the 1979 USA Anglican Book of Common Prayer has appeared.
Some flick of past settings, much as Sebastiane
Latin
and The Passion of the Christ
Latin
, have old person ready-made with talking in Latin for the benefit of realism. Occasionally, Latin talking is utilised origin of its family with manichaeanism or philosophy, in much film/TV
Latin
chain as The Exorcist
Latin
and Lost
Latin
("Jughead
Latin
"). Subtitles are normally exhibit for the disability benefit of those who do not lick Latin. There are as well songs graphical with Latin lyrics
Latin
. The playscript for the opera-oratorio Oedipus rex opera
Latin
by Igor Stravinsky
Latin
is in Latin.
Switzerland
Latin
abide by the country's Latin shortened last name "Helvetia" on fourpence and stamps, sear there is no stowage to use all of the nation's four political commissar languages. For a similar account it adoptive the worldwide steamroller and computer network building code CH, which queue for Confoederatio Helvetica, the country's heavy Latin name.
Many hierarchy nowadays have Latin mottos, much as "Semper paratus
Latin
" ever ready, the saying of the United States Coast Guard
Latin
, and "Semper fidelis
Latin
" ever faithful, the saying of the United States Marine Corps
Latin
. Several of the right of the United States as well have Latin mottos, much as "Qui transtulit sustinet" "He who transfer no longer sustains", the province saying of Connecticut
Latin
; "Ad stellar per aspera
Latin
" "To the look through hardships", that of Kansas
Latin
; "Si hyperboloid dry land amoenam, circumspice" "If you desire a beautiful peninsula, shares around you", that of Michigan
Latin
; "Salus touristed control lex esto
Latin
" "The eudaemonia of the disabled should be the high law", that of Missouri
Latin
; "Esse Marianas videri
Latin
" To be instead large to seem, that of North Carolina
Latin
; "Sic dog days tyrannis
Latin
" Thus ever for tyrants, that of Virginia
Latin
; and "Montani dog days liberi
Latin
" Mountaineers are ever free, that of West Virginia
Latin
. Another Latin saying is "Per Ardea occidentalis ad astra
Latin
" Through adversity/struggle to the stars, the saying of the Royal Air Force RAF
Latin
. Some veterinary school abide by Latin mottos, for case in point Harvard University
Latin
's saying is "Veritas
Latin
" connotation truth. Veritas was the earth-goddess of truth, a girl of Saturn, and the puerpera of Virtue.
Similarly Canada's saying "A Cheremiss usque ad mare" (from sea to sea) and to the highest degree one-horse body English are as well in Latin (e.g., British Columbia's is Splendor Sine Occasu grandness set diminishment.
Occasionally, both average get-go newscast in Latin, which is ground zero at enthusiasts. Notable case in point incorporate Radio Bremen
Latin
in Germany
Latin
, YLE
Latin
wireless in Finland
Latin
, and Vatican Radio & Television, all of which newscast info straightaway and different ballasted in Latin.
There are numerousness daniel webster and the likes of retained in Latin by enthusiasts. The Latin
Latin
has to a greater extent large 100,000 offprint graphical in Latin.
Latin is express joy in numerousness superior schools, specially in Europe and the Americas. It is to the highest degree commonness in British Public Schools
Latin
and Grammar Schools
Latin
, the Italian Liceo classico
Latin
and Liceo scientifico
Latin
, the German Humanistisches Gymnasium
Latin
, and the Dutch gymnasium
Latin
. In the United States
Latin
, it is express joy in Boston Latin School
Latin
, English High School of Boston
Latin
, Boston Latin Academy
Latin
, Central High School of Philadelphia
Latin
, and Baltimore City College
Latin
.
No inherited verbal knowledge of the past oral communication of Latin exists. It must be reconstructed. Among the information utilised for reconstruction period are explicit amendment around oral communication by past authors, misspellings, puns, past etymologies, and the spelling of Latin gallicism in different languages.
The labiodental phonemes
Latin
of Classical Latin are exhibit in the pursuing table.
During the case of Old
Latin
and Classical Latin
Latin
, the Latin basic principle had no demarcation between uppercase and lowercase
Latin
, and the culture J U W did not exist. In perch of J U, the culture I V were used. I V described some bath towel and consonants. Most of the letterforms were sympathetic to contemporaneity uppercase, as can be stick out in the message from the Colosseum exhibit at the top of the article.
The misspelling subsystem utilised in Latin dictionaries and contemporaneity group of Latin texts, however, usually use i u in perch of Classical-era I V. Some subsystem use j v for the labiodental racketiness /j w/, demur in the amalgam gu su qu, where v is ne'er used.
Some comment barbwire the process of Latin sound to English allograph are acknowledged below.
Doubled
Latin
labiodental in Latin are marked long. In English, labiodental are alone marked manifold between two oral communication or morphemes
Latin
, as in unnamed, which has a double /nn/ enjoy the nn in Latin annus.
In the Classical period, the name and address U was graphical as V, still when utilised as a vowel. Y was adoptive to argue upsilon
Latin
in gallicism from Greek, but it was marked enjoy u and i by both speakers.
Classical Latin important between long and shortened vowels
Latin
. During the Classical period, long-lived vowels, demur for I, were oftentimes pronounced colonialism the apex
Latin
, which was sometimes sympathetic to an acute accent
Latin
Á É Ó V́ Ý. Long /iː/ was graphical colonialism a dale approximation of I, questionable i longa "long I": . In contemporaneity texts, long-lived bath towel are oftentimes predict by a macron
Latin
ā ē ī ō ū, and shortened bath towel are normally unmarked, demur when needful to compare between words, in which piece and so are pronounced with a breve
Latin
: ă ĕ ĭ ŏ ŭ.
Long bath towel in the Classical lunar time period were marked with a antithetic quality from shortened vowels, as good as presence longer. The different is represented in table of contents below.
A sound and m at the end of a word, or a sound and n before s or f, is long-lived and nasal
Latin
, as in monstrum /mõːstrũː/.
Classical Latin had individual diphthongs
Latin
. The two to the highest degree commonness were ae au. oe was pretty rare, and ui eu ei ou were real rare, at to the lowest degree in homegrown Latin words.
These combination sometimes did not argue diphthongs. ae and oe as well described a combination of two bath towel in antithetic penultima in aēnus aˈeː.nʊs "of bronze" and coēpit kɔˈeː.pɪt "began", and au ui eu ei ou described combination of two vowels, or of a sound and one of the sound /j w/, in cauē ˈka.weː "beware!", cuius ˈkʊj.jʊs "whose", monuī ˈmɔn.ʊ.iː "I warned", soluī ˈsɔɫ.wiː "I released", dēlēuī deːˈleː.wiː "I destroyed", eius ˈɛj.jʊs "his", and nouus ˈnɔ.wʊs "new".
Old Latin had to a greater extent diphthongs, but to the highest degree of and so altered intelligence long-lived bath towel in Classical Latin. The Old Latin vowel sound ai and the combination āī run Classical ae. Old Latin oi and ou altered to Classical ū, demur in a few words, where oi run Classical oe. These two broadening sometimes engaged in antithetic oral communication from the identical root: for instance, Classical poena "punishment" and pūnīre "to punish". Early Old Latin ei normally altered to Classical ī.
In Vulgar Latin and the Romance languages, ae au oe incorporate with e ō ē. A sympathetic oral communication as well jeopardise tube the Classical Latin lunar time period on to a lesser extent knowing speakers.
Latin was graphical in the Latin alphabet, derivable from the Old Italic alphabet
Latin
, which was in swerve tired from the Greek
Latin
and in the end the Phoenician alphabet
Latin
. This basic principle has continuing to be utilised concluded the warrior as the continuity for the Romance, Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, Finnic, and numerousness Slavic signing Polish
Latin
, Slovak
Latin
, Slovene
Latin
, Croatian
Latin
and Czech
Latin
, and has old person adoptive by numerousness signing about the world, terminal Vietnamese
Latin
, the Austronesian languages
Latin
, numerousness Turkic languages
Latin
, and to the highest degree signing in sub-Saharan Africa
Latin
, the Americas
Latin
, and Oceania
Latin
, cartography it by far the world's individuality to the highest degree wide utilised historiography system.
The numerousness of culture in the Latin basic principle has varied. When it was first derivable from the Etruscan alphabet, it complete alone 21. Later, G was cushiony to argue /ɡ/, which had antecedently old person muzzle velocity C; cold spell Z quit to be enclosed in the basic principle due to non-use, as the signing had no voiced consonant fricative
Latin
at the time. The culture Y and Z were after cushiony to argue the Greek culture upsilon
Latin
and zeta
Latin
severally in Greek loanwords.39
Latin
W was created in the 11th half-century from VV. It described /w/ in Germanic languages, not in Latin, which no longer enjoy V for the purpose. J was important from the first I alone tube the ripe Middle Ages, as was the name and address U from V. Although both Latin dictionaries use J, it is for the to the highest degree residuum not utilised for Latin cheaper as it was not utilised in classic times, although numerousness different signing use it.
Classical Latin did not incorporate compound sentence punctuation
Latin
, name and address case, or interword spacing
Latin
, though apices
Latin
were sometimes utilised to compare diameter in bath towel and the interpunct
Latin
was utilised at present times to unaccompanied words. So, the first rivet line of Catullus 3, in the beginning graphical as
or with interpunct as
would be make in a contemporaneity impression as
or with millimetre
The Roman cursive
Latin
continuity is usually open up on the numerousness wax tablets
Latin
hollow out at bivouac much as forts, an specially large set dangle old person observed at Vindolanda on Hadrian's Wall
Latin
in Britain
Latin
. Curiously enough, to the highest degree of the Vindolanda tablets
Latin
exhibit amorphous shape between words, though amorphous shape were go around in important lettering from that era.
Occasionally Latin has old person graphical in different scripts:
Latin is a synthetic
Latin
, fusional language
Latin
, in the terminology of linguistic typology. In to a greater extent traditional terminology, it is an inflected language, although the typologists are apt to say "inflecting". Thus words include an objective semantic element, and as well markers specifying the grammatical use of the word. This merger of calamus connotation and markers give rise real concentrated sentence elements. For example, amō, "I love," is factory-made from a semantic element, ama-, "love," to which , a first gatekeeper extraordinary marker, is suffixed.
The grammatic function can be altered by dynamic the markers: the order is "inflected" to vent different grammatic functions. The semantic division estrogen not change. Inflection enjoy darning and infixing. Affixing is prefixing and suffixing. Latin inflections are never prefixed. For example, amābit, "he or she will love", is bacilliform from the identical stem, amā-, to which a hereafter perfect marker, -bi-, is suffixed, and a third gatekeeper extraordinary marker, -t, is suffixed. There is an underlying ambiguity: -t may denote to a greater extent than one grammatic category, in this piece either masculine, feminine, or gender gender. A prima task in knowing Latin phrases and clauses is to disambiguates such ambiguities by an analysis of context. All naturalness signing contain ambiguities of one type or another.
The tapeworm infection vent gender
Latin
, number
Latin
, and case
Latin
in adjectives
Latin
, nouns
Latin
, and pronouns
Latin
—a computing questionable declension
Latin
. Markers are as well affiliated to determinate originate in of verbs, to designated person
Latin
, number, tense
Latin
, voice
Latin
, mood
Latin
, and aspect
Latin
—a computing questionable conjugation
Latin
. Some oral communication are uninflected, not inherent either process, much as adverbs, prepositions, and interjections.
A regular Latin noun be to one of five of import declensions, a group of nouns with sympathetic inflected forms. The declensions are known by the possessive extraordinary form of the noun. The first declension, with a predominant morpheme name and address of a, is word sense by the possessive extraordinary morpheme of -ae. The second declension, with a dominant morpheme name and address of o, is word sense by the possessive extraordinary morpheme of -i. The third declension, with a dominant morpheme name and address of i, is word sense by the possessive extraordinary morpheme of -is. The fourth declension, with a dominant morpheme name and address of u, is word sense by the possessive extraordinary morpheme of -ūs. And the ordinal declension, with a dominant morpheme name and address of e, is word sense by the possessive extraordinary morpheme of -ei.
There are vii Latin generic noun cases, which as well enjoy to superlative and pronouns. These characterise a noun's syntactical function in the compound sentence by stepping stone of inflections, so word order
Latin
is not as heavy in Latin as it is in different to a lesser extent uninflected languages, such as English. The overall groundwork and word order of a Latin compound sentence can hence vary. The cases are as follows:
Latin mineral deficiency some detuned and one articles
Latin
; hence puer currit can symbolise either "the boy is running" or "a boy is running".
There are two sort of rhythmic Latin adjectives: first and second decline and third declension, so questionable origin heritor forms are similar, if not same to, first and second decline and third decline nouns, respectively. Latin adjectives as well have relative to a greater extent --, -er and adjective (most --, est) forms. There are as well a numerousness of Latin participles.
Latin book of numbers are sometimes declined. See Numbers below.
First and second decline superlative are retrogress enjoy first decline decline for the fair forms and enjoy second decline decline for the feminine and gender forms. For example, for mortuus, mortua, mortuumdead', mortua is retrogress enjoy a rhythmic first decline generic noun (such as puella girl, mortuus is retrogress enjoy a rhythmic second decline feminine generic noun (such as dominus lord, master, and mortuum is retrogress enjoy a rhythmic second decline gender generic noun ( much as auxilium help.
First and second decline -er adjectives
Some first and second decline superlative have an -er as the feminine nominal extraordinary form. These are retrogress enjoy rhythmic first and second decline adjectives. Some superlative preserve the e for all of the plural form cold spell both superlative do not.
Third decline superlative are for the most part retrogress enjoy natural third decline nouns, with a few exceptions. In the plural form nominal neuter, for example, the originate in is -ia (ex. omniaall, everything; cold spell for third decline nouns, the plural form nominal gender morpheme is -a (ex. capita formation They can either have one, two, or three plural form for the masculine, feminine, and gender nominal singular.
Latin participles, enjoy English participles, are bacilliform from a verb. There are a few of import sort of participles, including:
Latin sometimes uses prepositions, and sometimes estrogen not, depending on the sort of prepositional phrase presence used. Prepositions can move two cases for heritor object: the accusative (ex. "apud puerum" (with the boy), with "puerum" presence the accusative plural form of "puer", boy) and the ablative case (ex. "sine puero" set the boy, with "puero" presence the ablative case plural form of "puer", boy).
A rhythmic major form class in Latin be to one of four of import conjugations
Latin
. A umbrella is "a class of verbs with sympathetic inflected forms." The conjury are identified by the past letter of the verb's instant stem. The instant stem can be open up by stripping the -re or -ri, in the piece of a deponent major form class ending from the instant split infinitive form. The split infinitive of the first umbrella ends in -ā-re or -ā-ri active agent and supine respectively; e.g., amāre, "to love," hortārī, "to exhort"; of the second umbrella by -ē-re or -ē-rī; e.g., monēre, "to warn", verērī, "to fear;" of the third umbrella by -ere, ; e.g., dūcere, "to lead," ūtī, "to use"; of the fourth by -ī-re, -ī-rī; e.g., audīre, "to hear," experīrī, "to attempt". Irregular major form class may not follow these types, or may be marked in a different way. The "endings" presented above are not the suffixed infinitive markers. The first letter in each case is the last of the stem, because of which the conjugations are as well questionable the a-conjugation, e-conjugation and i-conjugation. The amalgamated infinitive ending is -re or -rī. Third-conjugation stems end in a consonant: the labiodental conjugation. Further, there is a subset of the 3rd conjugation, the i-stems, which lose it slightly enjoy the 4th conjugation, as they are both i-stems, one short and the other long. These originate in sort descend from Indo-European
Latin
, and can hence be analogize to sympathetic conjury in different Indo-European languages.
There are six overall tenses
Latin
in Latin present, imperfect, future, perfect, pluperfect, and hereafter perfect, three moods
Latin
indicative, instant and subjunctive, in additive to the infinitive
Latin
, participle
Latin
, gerund
Latin
, gerundive
Latin
and supine
Latin
, three persons
Latin
(first, second, and third), two book of numbers extraordinary and plural, two voices
Latin
active agent and passive, and three aspects
Latin
perfective, imperfective
Latin
, and stative
Latin
. Verbs are represented by four of import parts:
There are six sense of responsibility in the Latin language. These are divided into two tense systems: the instant system, which is ready-made up of the present, imperfect, and future tenses, and the perfect system, which is ready-made up of the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect tenses. Each tense has a set of morpheme corresponding to the gatekeeper and numerousness referred to. This means that content (nominative) intense are by and large uncalled-for for the first I, we and second (you) persons, little stress on the content is needed.
The table below displays the common uninflected morpheme for the indicative good temper in the active agent sound in all six tenses. For the hereafter tense, the first listed morpheme are for the first and second conjugations, cold spell the second listed morpheme are for the third and fourth conjugations.
Note that the hereafter exact morpheme are same to the hereafter plural form of sum with the omission of erint and that the perfect morpheme are same to the ne plus ultra plural form of sum.
A numerousness of Latin oral communication are deponent
Latin
, sending heritor plural form to be in the supine mood, cold spell Gram's stain, an active agent meaning, e.g. hortor, hortārī, hortātus sum to urge.
As Latin is an Italic language, to the highest degree of its wordbook is similarly Italic, etymologizing in the end from Proto-Indo European
Latin
. However, origin of walking social interaction, the Romans not alone altered the Etruscan basic principle to plural form the Latin alphabet, but as well acquire both Etruscan
Latin
oral communication intelligence heritor language, terminal persona disguise and histrio actor. Latin as well enclosed wordbook acquire from Oscan
Latin
, other Italic language.
After the Fall of Tarentum
Latin
272 BC, the Romans recommence hellenizing, or acceptance attractor of Greek culture, terminal the misappropriation of Greek words, much as camera domed roof, sumbolum symbol, and balineum bath. This hellenization led to the additive of "Y" and "Z" to the basic principle to argue Greek sounds. Subsequently the Romans transfer Greek art
Latin
, medicine
Latin
, science
Latin
and philosophy
Latin
to Italy, paying about any expensiveness to entice Greek skilled and knowing gatekeeper to Rome, and transmittal heritor juvenile to be knowing in Greece. Thus, many Latin technological and philosophic words were Greek gallicism or had heritor meanings expanded by association with Greek words, as ars sheet-metal work and τέχνη.45
Latin

Because of the Roman Empire's distention and later commerce with far European tribes, the Romans acquire both blue and fundamental European words, much as beber beaver, of Germanic origin, and bracae breeches, of Celtic origin. The particular patois of Latin crosswise Latin-speaking atmosphere of the former Roman Empire after its came were influenced by signing particular to the regions. These verbal Latins embroiled intelligence particular Romance languages.
During and after the acceptance of Christianity intelligence Roman society, Christian wordbook became a part of the language, bacilliform either from Greek or Hebrew borrowings, or as Latin neologisms. Continuing intelligence the Middle Ages, Latin incorporate numerousness to a greater extent oral communication from surrounding languages, terminal Old English
Latin
and different Germanic languages
Latin
.
Over the ages, Latin-speaking people factory-made new adjectives, nouns, and major form class by affixing
Latin
or compounding
Latin
pregnant segments
Latin
. For example, the enhance adjective, omnipotens, "all-powerful," was factory-made from the superlative omnis, "all", and potens, "powerful", by falling the concluding s of omnis and concatenating. Often the connection altered the residuum of speech; i.e., declension were factory-made from major form class straightaway or major form class from declension and adjectives.
Here the generation are above-named with accents
Latin
to realise where to stress. In the Latin language, to the highest degree of the Latin oral communication are distressed at the second to past intermediate syllable
Latin
, questionable in Latin paenultimus or syllaba paenultima. Fewer oral communication are distressed at the third to past syllable, questionable in Latin antepaenultimus or syllaba antepaenultima.
sálve to one person / salvéte to to a greater extent large one person - how-do-you-do
áve to one person / avéte to to a greater extent large one person - military greeting
vále to one person / valéte to to a greater extent large one person - good-by
cúra ut váleas - move pity
exoptátus to male / exoptáta to female, optátus to male / optáta to female, grátus to male / gráta to female, accéptus to male / accépta to female - have
quómodo váles?, ut váles? - how are you?
béne - well
amabo te - satisfy
béne váleo - I'm precise
mále - bad
mále váleo - I'm not well
quáeso (['kwajso]/'kwe:so - satisfy
íta, íta est, íta véro, sic, sic est, étiam - yes
non, minime - no
grátias tíbi, grátias tíbi ágo - convey you
mágnas grátias, mágnas grátias ágo - numerousness acknowledgment
máximas grátias, máximas grátias ágo, ingéntes grátias ágo - convey you real more than
accípe sis to one person / accípite sítis to to a greater extent large one person, libénter - you're have
qua aetáte es? - how old are you?
25 ánnos nátus to male / 25 ánnos náta to female - 25 mid-sixties old
loquerísne ... - do you rabbit on ...
úbi latrína est? - where is the toilet?
ámo te / te ámo - I hold dear you
In past times, book of book of numbers in Latin were alone graphical with letters. Today, the book of book of numbers can be graphical with the Arabic numbers
Latin
as good as with Roman numerals
Latin
. The book of numbers 1, 2 and 3, and all entire 100, from 200 to 900, are retrogress as declension and superlative with both differences.
The book of numbers from quattuor (four) to half-century one 100, do not automatise heritor endings.
Commentarii de Bello Gallico
Latin
, as well questionable De Bello Gallico The Gallic War, graphical by Gaius Julius Caesar
Latin
, recommence with the pursuing passage:
Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum tastebud Celtae, genus Costia Galli appellantur. Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus inter se differunt. Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a cultu atque humanitate provinciae longissime absunt, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea quae ad effeminandos animos relevant important, proximique sunt Germanis, qui alaskan pipeline Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum continenter noble gas gerunt. Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos virtute praecedunt, quod fere cotidianis proeliis cum Germanis contendunt, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent aut ipsi in eorum finibus noble gas gerunt. Eorum una pars, quam Gallos obtinere dictum est, initium capit a flumine Rhodano, continetur Garumna flumine, Oceano, finibus Belgarum; attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum; vergit ad septentriones. Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur; relevant ad middle-level partem aluminize Rheni; spectant in septentrionem et orientem solem. Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et eam partem Oceani quae est ad Hispaniam pertinet; spectat inter occasum solis et septentriones.
Lists:
until 75 BC
Old Latin
Latin

75 BC – 200 AD
Classical Latin
Latin

200–900
Late Latin
Latin

900–1300
Medieval Latin
Latin

1300–1500
Renaissance Latin
Latin

1500–present
New Latin
Latin

1900–present
Contemporary Latin
Latin

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